# Annalen Der Physik Einstein Pdfcorporationwestern

- Annalen der Physik (English: Annals of Physics) is one of the oldest scientific journals on physics and has been published since 1799. The journal publishes original, peer-reviewed papers in the areas of experimental, theoretical, applied, and mathematical physics and related areas.
- Annalen der Physik (AdP) & Albert Einstein. Special Issue & Supplement: Commemorating Albert Einstein Special Issue, vol. 14, issue 1-3 (2005) Supplement, vol. 14, issue S1 (2005): Einstein’s Annalen Papers (EAP); also available as: Einstein’s Annalen Papers, edited by J. Renn, WILEY-VCH, Weinheim, 2005, ISBN 3-527-40564-X, ca.
- In this work, we describe the chronology of Einstein's scientifics discoveries (including his Annus Mirabilis papers) and a full list of his scientist publications. Annalen der Physik, 33.

Wormholes Supported by a Combination of Normal and Quintessential Matter in Einstein and Einstein-Maxwell Gravity. DOI: 10.4236/jmp.2013.41006 4,210 Downloads 6,105 Views Citations. Date: January 18, 2013.

In his *Annalen der Physik*__35__, 898-908 (1911) article, Einstein explicitly allowed the gravitational field to affect the __value__ of the velocity of light.

German original: *“Uber den Einfluβ der Schwerkraft auf die Ausbreitung des Lichtes”* (Princeton Univ Press)

English translation: *“On the Influence of Gravitation on the Propagation of Light”* (Princeton Univ Press)

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From Page 385 in English translation (italic ours):

“If (c_0) denotes the velocity of light at the coordinate origin, then the velocity of light (c) at a point with a gravitational potential (phi) will be given by the relation $$c=c_0left(1+frac{phi}{c^2}right)$$ *“The principle of the constancy of the velocity of light does not hold in this theory in the formulation in which it is normally used as the basis of the ordinary theory of relativity [namely, Special Relativity].”* Our comment: In this sentence, Einstein was explicit about the __limited scope__ of the principle of the constancy of the velocity of light. To him, that principle is only valid __locally__.

and, also from Page 385:

“From the proposition just proved, that *the velocity of light in the gravitational field is a function of place*, once can easily deduce, via Huygens’s principle, that light rays propagated across a gravitational field must undergo deflection.”

## Annalen Der Physik

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Although the deflection of light rays is eventually found in GR to be due to their geodesics on a curved spacetime, the most important point of his ‘1911 Annalen remains: to Einstein, the location-dependent speed of light does __NOT__ contradict the principle of the constancy of light speed (i.e, the Michelson-Morley experiment results and the Lorentz invariance). GR further strengthens his point: all of the latters are meant to hold only locally in the set of reference frames tangent to the manifold at each point.

What if along its geodesic on a curved manifold, the light ray also changes the __value__ of its speed (while the Lorentz symmetry still locally holds in the set of tangent frames at each point, per GR)?

Furthermore, what if the value of light speed is determined by the Riemann tensor itself?

These two questions constitute the body of our work, presented in this blog and in our formal reports.

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Prerequisites:

(star) Introduction: Why a revival of Einstein ‘1911 Idea?

## Annalen Der Physik Einstein

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(star) Ricci scalar as a master ruler and clock: Anisotropic scaling in time direction